Background and Aims: Smokeless tobacco is a heterogeneous product group with diverse composition and prevalence globally. Tobacco use during pregnancy is concerning due to the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and effects on child health. Nicotine
may mediate several of these effects. This systematic review measured health outcomes from Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) use during pregnancy.
Method: Literature search was conducted by an information specialist in May 2022. We included human studies of snus use during pregnancy compared with no tobacco use, assessed risk of bias, conducted a meta-analysis and assessed confidence in effect-estimates using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE).
Results: We included 18 cohort studies (42 to 1 006 398 participants). Snus use during pregnancy probably (moderate confidence in risk estimates) increase the risk of neonatal apnea, adjusted odds ratio 95% confidence interval [aOR (95% CI)] 1.96 (1.30 to 2.96). Snus use during pregnancy possibly (low confidence in risk estimates) increase the risk of stillbirths aOR 1.43 (1.02 to 1.99), extremely premature births aOR 1.69 (1.17 to 2.45), moderately premature birth aOR 1.26 (1.15 to 1.38), SGA aOR 1.26 (1.09 to 1.46), reduced birth weight mean difference of 72.47 g (110.58 g to 34.35 g reduction) and oral cleft malformations aOR 1.48 (1.00 to 2.21). It is uncertain (low confidence in risk estimates, CI crossing 1) whether snus use during pregnancy affects risk of preeclampsia aOR 1.11 (0.97 to 1.28), antenatal bleeding aOR 1.15 (0.92 to 1.44) and very premature birth aOR 1.26 (0.95 to 1.66). Risk of early neonatal mortality and altered heart rate variability is uncertain, very low confidence. Snus using mothers had increased prevalence of caesarean sections, low confidence.

Use of Swedish smokeless tobacco during pregnancy: A systematic review of pregnancy and early life health risk.
Brinchmann BC, Vist GE, Becher R, Grimsrud TK, Elvsaas I-K, Underland V, Holme JA, Carlsen KCL, Kreyberg I, Nordhagen LS, Bains KES, Carlsen KH, Alexander J, Valen H
Addiction. 2023.