To determine the thermal expansion of a porcelain (VM9) and tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) as well as the deflection upon re-heating and cooling of a bilayer fabricated from these two materials after slow and rapid cooling during initial fabrication.
The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of bulk porcelain and Y-TZP as well as bilayer beam deflection was measured with a novel non-contact optical dilatometer. The influence of cooling rate during initial fabrication of the porcelain–zirconia bilayer and the bulk porcelain during subsequent heating and cooling is investigated. Specimens were heated to 900 °C in the dilatometer, well in excess of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and softening temperature (Ts) of the porcelain.
The thermal expansion of the porcelain above Tg exhibits a threefold increase in CTE over that observed below Tg. Observations of the bilayer deflection reflect the difference in the CTE of the component materials and enable Tg and Ts temperatures for the porcelain to be estimated. Initial cooling rate of the porcelain and porcelain-YTZP bilayer was found to have a profound influence on the subsequent response to slow reheating and cooling as well as the resultant residual deflection.
The estimation of the residual stress and potential for chipping of porcelain–zirconia dental restorative systems should not be based solely on thermal expansion data measured below Tg.


Thermal induced deflection of a porcelain–zirconia bilayer: Influence of cooling rate
Swain M.V, Mercurio V, Tibballs J.E, Tholey M.
Dental materials 35 (2019) 574-584