A vacuum/Ar pressure casting machine was used to study porosity and mould filling of cast bridges of Ti. Two series of experiments were carried out: (1) The melting and the mould chamber were separated by a thin Ti foil until penetrated by the Ti melt. The mould chamber including the mould cavity was evacuated. (2) No separating Ti foil was applied. The pressure in the mould chamber was then controlled by diffusion of Ar through the investment. The moulds were made of two investments with different gas permeability. A standardized wax pattern for a five-unit bridge was used. Mould filling was evaluated by visual inspection and by measuring the missing lengths of the margins of the crowns. The porosity was studied by x-ray radiography and density measurements. In the first series mould filling was satisfactory in all cases, while the porosity was substantial for high Ar pressures. Without a Ti foil (second series) all castings contained little porosity, but the mould filling was adequate only for the high permeability investment. The experiments show that porosity can be avoided by maintaining small pressure differences between the melting chamber and the mould cavity. Adequate mould filling is promoted by minimal back pressures from trapped Ar gas in the mould.

Porosity and mould filling of titanium castings.
Herø H, M. Syverud M, Waarli M
Journal of materials Science: Materials in medicine May 1993; 4(3): 296-299