Primary osteoporosis signifies the loss of trabecular bone mass following menopause and is linked to decreased production of estrogen. The condition increases the risk of traumatic fractures of peripheral bones such as wrist or femur and compression fractures of the spine. The degree of osteoporosis is determined by assessing the mineral density of different skeletal bones. Jawbone, including the tooth supporting alveolar process, may also be affected by osteoporosis. It has therefore been hypothesized that periodontal breakdown of alveolar bone is facilitated by estrogen deficiency osteoporosis. One possible explanation is that the osteoporotic alveolar process is more easily resorbed by the inflammatory influence than its healthy counterpart. An interactive mechanism could be the decrease in the anti-inflammatory effect of estrogen associated with estrogen deficiency.

Animal studies indicate that reduced estrogen following ovariectomy aggravates the loss of alveolar bone by experimental periodontitis. Likewise, many epidemiological studies indicate a correlation between osteoporosis and alveolar bone loss by periodontal disease among postmenopausal women, but such findings are not always consistent. Moreover, confounding factors such as age, smoking, socioeconomic state and small size of the patient material may prevent the establishment of a statistically valid causal relationship. However, increasing evidence indicates that primary osteoporosis could be a contributing factor in the development of periodontal disease.

Osteoporose og periodontal sykdom
Jacobsen N, Dahl JE.
Nor Tannlegeforen Tidende 2013; 123:316-22