OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate a method proposed for measuring dimensional changes of endodontic sealers, and to assess the dimensional changes of 11 commercial sealers after prolonged storage in water.
METHODS: The method for linear dimensional change described in the draft standard for endodontic sealers was applied to 11 different types of endodontic sealers. One material (Sealapex) could not be tested by the method. The other 10 materials were followed for dimensional change over 48 weeks.
RESULTS: The sealers showed markedly different dimensional properties. For most materials, the greatest dimensional changes took place within the first 4 weeks. Zinc-oxide-eugenol based sealers generally showed shrinkage ranging from 0.3 to 1%, while one product (Proco-Sol) exhibited expansion exceeding 6% after prolonged storage. The epoxy-based materials, AH 26 and AH 26 silverfree, exhibited a large, initial expansion of 4-5%. AH Plus expanded from 0.4% after 4 weeks up to 0.9%. Apexit, a Ca(OH)2-based material, showed only minor variation round baseline value, -0.14 to +0.19%. Roeko-Seal expanded to 0.2% within 4 weeks, but was stable thereafter.
SIGNIFICANCE: The test methodology adequately assessed dimensional changes exceeding +/-0.2%, but some brands of material either could not be made into adequate test specimens or showed surface changes which interfered with dimensional change measurements. Theoretical approaches to the consequences of expansion by materials of low bulk strength question the necessity of a strict requirement against expansion, whereas bacterial penetration may be a real threat from sealers shrinking as little as 1%.

Dimensional change following setting of root canal sealer materials.
Ørstavik D, Nordahl I, Tibballs J.
Dent Mater. 2001 Nov;17(6):512–9.