To compare the cumulative impact of sequential wear on mechanical properties and appearance of a composite resin (CR), Filtek Z250®, a glass ionomer GI, Fuji IX GP®, and a glass hybrid (GH), Equia Forte®.

Material and Methods
Six equally sized specimens of each material were subjected to wear tests, i.e., simulation of brushing, chewing and acidic liquid exposure, mimicking at least 6 months of clinical exposure. Surface roughness, hardness, substance loss and degree of shade lightness were determined.

Following wear tests, significant increase in surface roughness and decrease in hardness values were observed for all materials (p < .05). Significantly larger substance loss was found in Equia Forte specimens compared to Filtek Z250® (p < .05), while that of Fuji IX® exceeded the measurement capacity of the instrument. Opposite to the two other materials, the shade of Filtek Z250® became darker.

Sequential wear exposure mimicking abrasion, erosion and attrition to products representing CR, GI and GH, caused weakening and change in appearance of the materials. The composite resin was the most mechanically resistant to the sequential wear.

Deterioration of direct restorative materials under erosive conditions with impact of abrasion and attrition in vitro
Mulic A, Ruud A, Stenhagen IR, Bruzell E, Tulek A.
Biomater Investig Dent. 2023 Jun 9;10(1):2202211. doi: 10.1080/26415275.2023.2202211.