To investigate the metal ion release, surface roughness and cytoxicity for Co–Cr alloys produced by different manufacturing techniques before and after heat treatment. In addition, to evaluate if the combination of materials affects the ion release.
Five Co–Cr alloys were included, based on four manufacturing techniques. Commercially pure titanium, CpTi grade 4 and a titanium alloy were included for comparison. The ion release tests involved both Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analyses. The surface analysis was conducted with optical interferometry. Cells were indirectly exposed to the materials and cell viability was evaluated with the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method.
All alloys showed a decrease of the total ion release when CpTi grade 4 was present. The total ion release decreased over time for all specimens and the highest ion release was observed from the cast and milled Co–Cr alloy in acidic conditions.
The ion release from Co–Cr alloys is influenced by the combination of materials, pH and time. Surface roughness is influenced by heat treatment. Furthermore, both ion release and surface roughness are influenced by the manufacturing technique and the alloy type. The clinical implication needs to be further investigated.

Cobalt–chromium alloys fabricated with four different techniques: Ion release, toxicity of released elements and surface roughness
Kassapidou M, Hjalmarsson L, Johanson CB, Johanson PH, Morisbak E, Wennerberg A, Stenport VF
Dental Materials, September 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2020.08.012